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The answers provided to the Midterm review questions are not meant to give you an in-depth overview of American history from the beginning of the year until now. The answers given are just those--answers. They provide a response to stated question and not much else. It is recommended that if you are unsure of any topic, you explore any pages most of these question and answer sets link to. For example, Topic 58 focuses on the significance of the Whiskey Rebellion (the precedent set by the federal government) and therefore does not and should not contain too much information about the tax that caused the rebellion.
Note: These answers are currently the compilation/work of only a few individuals and therefore may not be complete. If you'd like to support your classmates while also studying for the exam, please, edit this page to include any information you think would be helpful. Please do not replace the current answer with your answer. Instead, reword or expand on the ideas present.
Also, some sentences or passages may be blatantly plagiarized from other sites including but not limited to Britannica, Wikipedia, or About without any notation whatsoever. This is mainly because this is a nonprofit wiki for personal use only and also because I only just learned how to cite things. So read this illicit content at your own risk. Ha. Kidding. Sort of.
Thanks for your help!
To-Do List (For Editors)Edit
- Finish all topics, starting with those at the end/difficult ones
- Add possible essay arguments
- If someone has a ton of free time, replace content-less internal links with hyperlinks to actual sources
I. Foundations of the American Republic Edit
The answers in this section are incomplete (ie, only the bullets discussed in class) and are currently waiting to be developed into full answers. You can help by expanding any of the ideas below.
|1||Early democratic influences||xxx|
|2||Problems faced by the settlers of Jamestown and the thing that saved them||
|3||Why the Puritans came to the New World and the manner in which they treated others||xxx|
|4||The theory of mercantilism and why it was resented in America||
|6||Significance of the French and Indian War||xxx|
|7||Why the British attempted tighter control and taxation of Americans after 1763||xxx|
|8||Colonial arguments regarding taxation||xxx|
|9||Advantages and disadvantages of both the British and the colonies at the start of the revolution.||xxx|
|10||Thomas Paine's Common Sense||xxx|
|11||Significant battles: Saratoga, Yorktown||xxx|
|12||The extent to which colonies were unified prior to the Declaration of Independence||xxx|
II. The Early Republic Edit
|13||The specific reasons and general principles used in the Declaration of Independence to justify America's separation||xxx|
|14||The purpose of the Constitution||xxx|
|15||System of checks and balances set up by the Constitution||xxx|
|16||Constitution and slavery||xxx|
|17||The Bill of Rights||xxx|
|18||Why Shay rebelled and the effect it had on the shaping of the government||xxx|
|19||The weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation||xxx|
|22||Describe the contrasting membership and principles of the Hamiltonian Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans||xxx|
|23||George Washington's Farewell Address of 1796||xxx|
|24||Alien and Sedition Acts||xxx|
|25||Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions||xxx|
|27||Why the election of 1800 was a revolution||xxx|
|28||The significance of the Whiskey Rebellion||When the US government passed an excise on whiskey tax and farmers started rebelling--violently--things got so out of hand, President Washington himself led an army of nearly 13,000 men to Pennsylvania, where a few of the ringleaders and more violent protesters were taken prisoner but released a few months later. The significance of this relatively swift federal action (and that the President should get involved in the matter) set a precedent for future quarrels. The people won their freedom after the Revolutionary War; the government had debts to pay and it was the duty of the people to help pay for their independence. The authority of the government may at times be taken into question, which is why the United States is a democracy, but under no circumstances should any disgruntled peoples act in the violent and unmannerly way those during the Whiskey Rebellion did.|
|29||Why the US was able to buy Louisiana and its long-term effects on the country||xxx|
|30||Causes of the War of 1812 and why the Federalists opposed it||xxx|
|31||Nationalism and sectionalism||xxx|
|32||Marbury v. Madison||xxx|
|33||John Marshal's interpretation of the Constitution and how this shaped the early republic||xxx|
|34||The Monroe Doctrine||xxx|
|35||Henry Clay's American System||xxx|
III. Jacksonian Democracy: Expansion and Reform Edit
|36||The significance of Jackson's victory in 1828 as a triumph of the "new democracy"||xxx|
|37||The "corrupt bargain" of 1824||xxx|
|38||Missouri Compromise of 1820||xxx|
|39||The "tariff of abominations" and why it aroused such anger in the South||xxx|
|40||Indian removal and the "Trail of Tears"||The forced relocation of Native Americans after the Indian removal act of 1830 to the present-day state of Oklahoma. Many Natives died during the way to Oklahoma or suffered from unpleasant things like disease and starvation.|
|41||Tariff Compromise of 1833***||The Tariff Compromise of 1833 was passed in an attempt to stop the [Nullification Crisis] brought on by South Carolina. The compromise lowered the rate of the tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina threatened to secede unless these rates were lowered.|
|42||Why Americans like Stephen Austin moved to Texas||Austin's father traveled to Spanish Texas and received a grant to bring 300 families to Texas. After he caught pneumonia his son Austin obtained the grant and his mother persuaded him to pursue the colonization of Texas. Once he arrived in Texas he realized it was no longer a Spanish province. It had become a Mexican province. Austin told the people in New Orleans that new land was available to farm with over 1,000 acres per family. This caused more people to move there.|
|43||Why Jackson was against the Bank of the United States||xxx|
IV. Union in Crisis: Civil War and Reconstruction Edit
|48||The significance of Eli Whitney's cotton gin|| The invention of the cotton gin in 1973, by the same man who would later go on to create the concept of mass production, was a tremendous gift to plantation owners, and on a larger scale, the advancement of technology everywhere. The cotton gin was a device that took the place of a slave or twenty, quickly and easily separating the cotton seeds from the valuable fibres. Significant outcomes include:
|52||"Popular sovereignty"||Popular sovereignty is the term used to describe "true" democracy. That is, it is the acknowledgement that the legitimacy of the state is created and sustained by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all its political power. Simply put, the people must be happy because otherwise the state will fall apart. Popular sovereignty was a big issue in the territories acquired from the Mexican-American War and Louisiana Purchase because the South was afraid that they'd lose a bunch of slave states, which is why they argued that it should be up to the state to decide if slavery would be allowed in the territory.|
|***53***||Lincoln and Douglas' positions in their debates for the senate seat||Republican Abraham Lincoln argued that Douglas wanted to nationalize slavery, and tried forcing Douglas to choose between the popular sovereignty proposed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act (see next topic) and the outcome of the Dredd Scott Supreme Court case, which stated that slavery could not legally be excluded from U.S. territories. Both options were bad, the first because at this point, popular sovereignty would not work well for Douglas, and he had proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act in the first place; the second because although Douglas often argued that Supreme Court rulings were the top law, this went against his position because he believed that states did have a right to exclude slavery. Douglas responded to this with the Freeport Doctrine. Democrat Stephen Douglas mainly tried to convince people that Lincoln was an abolitionist who would bring ruin to the country by creating equality between blacks and whites. Said Lincoln at the Charleston debate, "I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races, that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people; and I will say in addition to this that there is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality. And in as much as they cannot so live, while they do remain together there must be the position of superior and inferior, and I as much as any other man am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the white race. I say upon this occasion I do not perceive that because the white man is to have the superior position the negro should be denied everything. I do not understand that because I do not want a negro woman for a slave I must necessarily want her for a wife. My understanding is that I can just let her alone."|
|54||How the Kansas-Nebraska Act stirred the sectional controversy to new heights||Douglas' intended purpose of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was to create democracy of a sort (through popular sovereignty) over the issue of slavery in the new territories added by the Mexican-American War and Louisiana Purchase. However, it actually pushed the country towards civil war and ended up completely disregarding the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850 which split the issue of slavery in a line down the middle of the country. The main problem brought about by the Act was Bleeding Kansas, a conflict between the inhabitants of states like Missouri and new, pro-slavery settlers who had migrated from the South to use their power of popular sovereignty to see to it that the new territories were also slave states. This lasted a few years and killed a couple dozen people (see John Brown). Physical violence wasn't the only issue the Act caused. Fierce debates erupted in the Senate and House of Representatives and weapons were brandished. In summary, the Kansas-Nebraska Act stirred the sectional controversy to new heights because it allowed states that were formerly protected from slavery by the Compromises to be open for debate.|
|57||The Union war strategy to defeat the South||For a while, there was no real strategy to defeating the South. The Union soldiers just marched into battles and won some fights but lost many more of them. This changed when Winfield Scott devised the Anaconda Plan. Much like an anaconda squeezes its prey to death, the idea behind this strategy was to blockade the rivers and other key economic points of the South to prevent them from obtaining vital supplies and trading with the rest of the country and other nations. Then came General Sherman's plan, which really wasn't a plan at all but just general mayhem. He and his men would stand barely more than an arm's length apart from one another and walk through fields destroying everything in front of them. He even targeted civilians! This was most likely a war crime, but perhaps that's what it took to show the South that the Union was no longer in a trifiling mood and was to be taken seriously.|
|58||The Emancipation Proclamation||The Emancipation Proclamation was a document drawn up by President Abraham Lincoln and issued on September 22, 1862. The proclamation promised freedom for slaves held in any of the Confederate states that didn't return to the Union by the end of the year. If you remember, during the Civil War the primary goal of the Union wasn't originally to free the slaves. That was only added later on in the war. Lincoln once wrote in a letter, "My paramount object is to save the Union, and not either to save or destroy slavery."  Lincoln actually had the Proclamation earlier, back in July. Secretary of State Seward, however, advised him not to unleash it upon the nation then, as the Union was losing a fair number of battles and it might seem like this was a last-ditch effort to save the campaign. Once the Union won the battle at Antietam, Lincoln issued the Proclamation, which...did nothing. Because the Confederate states had resigned from the Union, Lincoln had no control over them. The only thing the Emancipation Proclamation did was change the objective of the war from just getting back the Confederate states to a crusade for human freedom.|
|59||The significance of each: Antietam, Gettysburg and Vicksburg||xxx|
|60||The condition of newly freed slaves and the efforts to assist them||xxx|
|61||The differences between presidential and congressional reconstruction||xxx|
|62||Pros and cons to Radical Reconstruction||xxx|
|63||Why Andrew Johnson was impeached|| From Wikipedia: Andrew Johnson was impeached for:
|64||13th, 14th, and 15thAmendments|| Although the original Constitution never mentioned slavery by name, the 13th Amendment specifically mentioned the crime. It was signed by Lincoln; however it was not ratified until a few months after his assassination.
The full text of the 13th Amendment (1865) reads:
Known also as the [Reconstruction] Amendment, the 14th amendment to the United States Constitution granted citizenship to anyone "born or naturalized in the United States," at the time, targeted specifically at African Americans. It also prevented any military officer of the Confederacy from ever again holding a position of political power unless Congress overruled the objection through a 2/3 vote.
The full text of the 14th Amendment (1868) reads:
|65||How militant white opposition gradually undermined the Republican attempt to empower southern blacks||xxx|
This text is collapsible.
V. Essay Edit
Main article: Midterm essay